The parable of the landowner:
 Jesus said to the chief priests and the elders of the people: “Hear another parable. There was a landowner who planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a wine-press in it, and built a tower. The he leased it to tenants and went on a journey.  When vintage time drew near, he sent his servants to the tenants to obtain his produce.  But the tenants seized the servants and one they beat, another they killed, and a third they stoned.  Again, he sent other servants, more numerous than the first ones, but they treated them in the same way.  Finally, he sent his son to them, thinking, ‘They will respect my son.’  But when the tenants saw the son, they said to one another, ‘This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and acquire his inheritance.’  They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.  What will the owner of the vineyard do to those tenants when he comes?”  They answered him, “He will put those wretched men to a wretched death and lease his vineyard to the other tenants who will give him the produce at the proper times.”  Jesus said to them, “Did you never read in the Scriptures: The stone that was rejected has become the cornerstone; by the LORD has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes.  Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people who will produce its fruit.” – Matthew 21:33-43
It is fairly obvious that in this parable, God (the Father) is the landowner, the servants He sent were the prophets, His Son is Jesus Christ, the tenants are the chief priests and elders, and the vineyard represents the House of Israel entrusted to the tenants. But the key to truly understanding this parable lie in verses 42 and 43.
“Did you never read in the Scriptures: “
The people Jesus was addressing were the chief priest and religious leaders of the Jewish people who were entrusted with the knowledge of Scripture. By asserting that they had not read Scripture, His question became rhetorical and highly insulting to them.
“The stone that was rejected has become the cornerstone; by the LORD has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes.”
The cornerstone or foundation of Judaism is God’s covenant with Abraham and his descendents to inherit the Kingdom of God. But, like the parable explains, the teachers of Judaism mistook this covenant as a some kind of inheritance or birthright that they owned. When God sent the teachers of Judaism prophets, who called for repentance, the chief priest and elders were the first to reject their teachings and call for their disposal.
Now, standing before them was God’s Son, who would be rejected and killed by the chief priest and elders of Judaism, who attempt to steal (or control) what is, rightfully, both God’s property and His Son’s inheritance.
“Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people who will produce its fruit.“
Jesus ended His parable by asking the Jewish chief priest and elders what the owner of the vineyard should do to the tenants? Ironically, their response was to kill the current tenants and replace them with new tenants and, historically, this is EXACTLY what happened. In a very literal sense, the kingdom of God was ripped from the hands of the chief priest and elders of the Judah faith and given to its rightful heir, Jesus Christ, the Son of God. The God of Abraham is no longer the exclusive property of Judaism and His Word is no longer hidden from the Gentile. Christendom, the stone that is still rejected by Judaism, became the foundation for spreading the Word of God to both Jew and Gentile, alike.
There is, yet, another aspect to this parable that is not immediately apparent to the casual reader. Specifically, verse 34 eludes to the fact that the “vintage time” of the LORD drew near as He sent His servants to the Jewish leaders. Likewise, the vintage time of the LORD drew near as Jesus Christ was sent to the Jewish leaders. Now, the vintage time of the LORD is upon us. Christ is the vine, mankind are His branches. The branches that bear good fruit will be preserved while the branches that do not produce fruit or wither will be pruned from the vine to preserve and promote the growth of the vine.
“…by the LORD has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes.”